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Specialties

Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. It is a state of being free from mouth and facial pain, oral and throat cancer, oral infection and sores, periodontal (gum) disease, tooth decay, tooth loss, and other diseases and disorders that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial wellbeing. Risk factors for oral diseases include unhealthy diet, tobacco use, harmful alcohol use, and poor oral hygiene. – WHO

Orthopaedics is the medical specialty that focuses on injuries and diseases of your body’s musculoskeletal system. This complex system, which includes your bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles, and nerves, allows you to move, work, and be active.

Once devoted to the care of children with spine and limb deformities, orthopaedists now care for patients of all ages, from newborns with clubfeet to young athletes requiring arthroscopic surgery to older people with arthritis. And anybody can break a bone.

Your Orthopaedic Surgeon

Orthopaedic surgeons treat problems of the musculoskeletal system. This involves:

  • Diagnosis of your injury or disorder
  • Treatment with medication, exercise, casting, surgery or other options
  • Rehabilitation by recommending exercises or physical therapy to restore movement, strength and function
  • Prevention with information and treatment plans to prevent injury or slow the progression of disease

While orthopaedic surgeons are familiar with all aspects of the musculoskeletal system, many orthopaedists specialize in certain areas, such as the foot and ankle, spine, shoulder, hand, hip or knee. They may also choose to focus on specific fields like pediatrics, trauma or sports medicine. Some orthopaedic surgeons may specialize in several areas.

Treatment

Your Doctor’s Visit

Your orthopaedic surgeon will take a history of your illness or injury and then do a physical examination. This may be followed by diagnostic studies such as x-rays or blood tests.

He or she will then discuss your diagnosis and help you select the best treatment plan so that you can live an active and functional life.

Nonsurgical Treatment

Orthopaedic surgeons treat many musculoskeletal conditions without surgery—by using medication, exercise and other rehabilitative or alternative therapies.

For most orthopaedic diseases and injuries there is more than one form of treatment. If necessary, your orthopaedic surgeon may recommend surgery if you do not respond to nonsurgical treatments. – AAOS

An ophthalmologist — Eye M.D. — is a medical or osteopathic doctor who specializes in eye and vision care. Ophthalmologists differ from optometrists and opticians in their levels of training and in what they can diagnose and treat. An ophthalmologist diagnoses and treats all eye diseases, performs eye surgery and prescribes and fits eyeglasses and contact lenses to correct vision problems. Many ophthalmologists are also involved in scientific research on the causes and cures for eye diseases and vision disorders.

SUBSPECIALISTS: ADDITIONAL KNOWLEDGE AND TRAINING FOR SPECIFIC EYE NEEDS

While ophthalmologists are trained to care for all eye problems and conditions, some Eye M.D.s specialize in a specific area of medical or surgical eye care.

Safeguard your vision. See the right eye care professional at the right time.

We all depend on our vision in more ways that we may realize. Without healthy vision, our ability to work, play, drive or even recognize a face can be drastically affected. Many factors can affect our eyesight, including other health problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes. Having a family member with eye disease can make you more prone to having that condition as well. Sight-stealing eye disease can appear at any time. Very often they are unnoticeable at first and are difficult to detect.

That’s why it is so important to see an ophthalmologist for a complete medical eye exam by age 40, and then as often as prescribed by your Eye M.D.

Following are just some of the signs or risk factors for eye disease. If you have any of these, be sure to visit an ophthalmologist. A complete, medical eye exam by an Eye M.D. could be the first step toward saving your sight.

  • Bulging of one or both eyes;
  • Dark curtain or veil that blocks your vision;
  • Decreased vision, even if temporary;
  • Diabetes mellitus;
  • Distorted vision;
  • Double vision;
  • Excess tearing;
  • Eyelid abnormalities;
  • Family history of eye disease;
  • Halos (colored circles around lights);
  • High blood pressure;
  • HIV or AIDS;
  • Injury to the eye;
  • Loss of peripheral (side) vision;
  • Misaligned eyes;
  • New floaters (black “strings” or specks in the vision) and/or flashes of light;
  • Pain in the eye;
  • Thyroid disease-related eye problems (Graves’ disease);
  • Unusual red eye.

© 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology

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